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Medicare VS NHS: A Complete Guide

Access to quality healthcare is a fundamental aspect of a well-functioning society. Almost all European countries have access to free healthcare, and governments across the globe have developed various healthcare systems to ensure their citizens receive prompt and comprehensive medical services.

Two prominent examples of quality healthcare are Medicare in Australia and the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. While both systems aim to provide healthcare to their respective populations, they differ significantly in their structures, funding mechanisms, and coverage. 

If you’re taking an extended trip to Australia, here’s what you need to know about Medicare and how it differs from NHS England.

The Differences Between Medicare vs the NHS

Both Medicare and NHS England rank amongst the top healthcare systems in the world. Here are some key differences between the two:


Medicare is Australia’s publicly funded healthcare system. It provides access to essential medical services for all Australian citizens at little or no cost. The service is funded by the Medicare levy: a tax paid by Australian workers.

NHS England is also a publicly funded healthcare system that provides comprehensive medical services to residents of the United Kingdom. It is structured as a single-payer system, which means that the government funds and manages healthcare services through taxes.


Citizens of the United Kingdom are accustomed to a comprehensive range of healthcare services, including consultations with general practitioners, hospital treatments, emergency care, mental health services, and preventive care. Coverage extends to prescription medications, although patients are typically required to pay a standard prescription charge. NHS England is known for its principle of universality, ensuring that all residents have access to necessary medical care, regardless of their financial status.

Likewise, Medicare covers a wide range of healthcare services, including consultations with healthcare professionals, diagnostic tests, hospital treatments, and several surgical procedures. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) also subsidizes prescription medications, making them more affordable for patients.


The NHS offers a wide range of providers, including general practitioners, hospitals, and specialized clinics. Patients can choose their general practitioner (GP), and they are referred without cost when specialist attention is required. 

While NHS England offers a high degree of choice, waiting times for both GP appointments and specialist referrals can vary depending on demand and available resources, forcing some to seek private care. In addition, patients are forced to join GPs within catchment areas that are a certain distance from their home addresses, making choices limited.

Medicare provides individuals with the freedom to choose their healthcare providers, including doctors, specialists, and hospitals without geographical boundaries. This allows patients to have a say in their healthcare journey and ensures that they can access the services they need from the healthcare professionals they trust.


The NHS has many services that provide emergency medical attention around the clock in exchange for financial incentives, giving UK citizens peace of mind – all the time.

Under Medicare, however, there is no obligation for GPs to provide out-of-hours care and no financial compensation either way. Nursing home visits do, however, attract a higher payment rate, although there is no obligation for GPs to perform them. 

That said, Medicare provides coverage for a wide range of medical services, including consultations, diagnostic tests, hospital treatments, and prescription medications. This comprehensive coverage ensures that essential healthcare services are accessible to all Australian citizens, regardless of their income or employment status. 

The combination of choice and accessibility in the Australian Medicare system empowers individuals to take control of their healthcare decisions and ensures that they receive the necessary care when they need it.

GP Salary

According to Alecto Australia, the average GP salary in Australia is $253,000 for practitioners who work on a full-time basis and conduct seven or more sessions per week. Those that work part-time, conducting six sessions or less each week, aren’t far behind with a salary of $194,000. 

Even with tax, insurance and pension contributions, this is considerably higher than the average GP salary in the UK which the British Medical Association estimates is between £62,070 and £98,194.

As a general rule of thumb, Australian workers receive better remuneration packages than UK employees – find out more about the Average Salary in Australia vs the UK here.

GP Payments

GPs based in the United Kingdom receive a salaried payment with very little financial incentive throughout the year unless opting to practice out of hours. NHS England pays GP practices a set fee according to the number of patients on both their list and in their catchment area. There is also a capped number of patient visits that the NHS will pay out for each year. 

GPs in Australia are paid directly by Medicare on a fee-for-service basis. This approach encourages entrepreneurialism by offering a financial incentive for GPs to accept Medicare patients. Under Medicare, the more patients a GP sees, the more money they will make. There are further incentives for GPs who secure Health Plan sign-ups or complete excisions. There is a caveat, though: GPs must pay around 35% of their earnings to the practice they work for to help keep it afloat.

Medicare vs NHS: Medicare Levy Australia

What is the Medicare Levy?

In Australia, the Medicare levy is a tax that helps fund the country’s public healthcare system, known as Medicare. The levy is a 2% tax imposed on eligible individuals to contribute to the cost of providing medical services and subsidizing certain healthcare expenses.

Who Has to Pay Medicare Levy?

The Medicare levy applies to Australian residents including individuals and families. 

The levy is income-tested, meaning that whether you have to pay the full levy or a reduced amount depends on your income level. The specific income thresholds are determined by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and may change from year to year.

The Medicare levy income thresholds for the 2023-2024 financial year in Australia are as follows:


Base Tier

Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3


$93,000 or less

$93,001 – $108,000

$108,001 – $144,000

$144,001 or more


$186,000 or less

$186,001 – $216,000

$216,0001 – $288,000

$288,001 or more

Medicare Levy






The thresholds change each financial year, so it’s crucial to refer to the most recent information from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) or consult with a tax professional to get the most up-to-date and accurate details regarding the Medicare levy income thresholds for a specific financial year.

Medicare Levy Exemptions and Reductions

Certain individuals may be exempt from paying the Medicare levy or qualify for a reduction based on their circumstances. This includes low-income earners, individuals with long-term medical conditions, pensioners, and people with disabilities.

How Does Medicare Bulk Billing Work?

Instead of privately billing the patient, many GPs bulk bill. This involves bypassing the patient and sending the final bill directly to Medicare for payment. Medicare bulk billing allows patients to receive medical services without having to pay any out-of-pocket expenses. It’s designed to make healthcare more accessible and affordable for patients by directly billing Medicare for the cost of the service provided. 

Bulk billing covers:

  • Visits to GPs
  • Consultations with specialists
  • Tests, scans and X-rays

Claiming Medicare

Claiming Medicare is easy and can be done in several ways:

  • At your doctor’s office
  • Through your Medicare online account
  • With the Express Plus mobile app
  • By mail

Since not all health professionals bulk bill, it’s always best to discuss this before seeing a healthcare professional. It’s also good to be aware that Medicare does not always cover the entire cost you paid and the difference is payable by the patient.

Is Medicare an Effective System?

Australia’s Medicare system stands as a robust healthcare model that prioritizes choice and accessibility for its citizens. 

Through Medicare, Australians have the freedom to select their healthcare providers and benefit from comprehensive coverage for a wide range of medical services. This empowers individuals to make informed decisions about their healthcare and ensures that essential care is accessible to all, irrespective of their financial situation. 

The combination of choice and accessibility in the Australian Medicare system reflects a commitment to providing effective healthcare and plays a vital role in supporting the well-being of the nation’s population.

Medicare for Expats

Medicare has many benefits for expats both as patients and healthcare providers. Patients in Australia can benefit from Medicare as patients by accessing subsidized or free healthcare services, exercising the freedom to choose their healthcare providers, and receiving comprehensive care for various medical needs. 

Expatriate healthcare professionals, especially GPs, can contribute to the Australian healthcare system by participating in Medicare and providing their services to Medicare-eligible patients, ensuring fair compensation and contributing to the overall quality of care. 

The Medicare system plays a pivotal role in promoting equitable healthcare for both residents and expatriates, enhancing the well-being of all individuals in Australia.

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